As populations Tenndssee, bands established territories within river valleys. The material culture of the Archaic people becomes more diverse over time with an array of stone and bone tools for a myriad of tasks. One must realize that for all the culture periods, we are missing a significant portion of the record; except in rare instances, gone are the European guy for contacts Knoxville Tennessee materials — wood, fiber, feathers, hides, furs, and ffor.
Housing evidence is restricted to a few postholes; many hearths and storage pits remain as mute evidence of residential sites.
Analysis of human burials from the Middle and Late Archaic periods reveal an average life expectancy of 25 years. Apparently violence occurred perhaps related to groups vying to retain control over territory, as indicated by inflicted projectile points found embedded in bodies and trauma preserved in the skeletal evidence including evidence for scalping.
Throughout the Archaic period and the rest of Europeam the major source of animal protein for Tennessee Indians was the white-tailed deer. This staple was supplemented by black bear and a wide array of European guy for contacts Knoxville Tennessee mammals.Horney Dryden Women
The most commonly hunted birds were turkeys and passenger pigeons, and where abundant along the flyways in the western part of the state, migratory waterfowl like ducks and geese. Fish such as suckers, drumfish, and catfish were also eaten.
Beginning in the Middle Archaic, freshwater mussels and gastropods were collected in enormous numbers, especially in the western Tennessee River valley. Massive heaps or middens of shell are fod along some of the major rivers of the state and signal residential sites andsometimes, where people were buried.
Gathering wild plant foods was as important European guy for contacts Knoxville Tennessee hunting, and of primary importance were nuts, especially nuts and acorns.Cute Women In Albuquerque New Mexico
These first line plant food staples remained important through all subsequent culture periods. Hickory nuts are high in fats and crude protein and require no special processing to render them edible.
Acorns are high in fats and carbohydrates and complemented hickory nuts as a food source although the bitter tannic acid in them must be leached out to make them edible. A European guy for contacts Knoxville Tennessee range of other plants were collected by the Indians and through continued human selection became domesticated: Sumpweed Iva annua Figure 12another cultigen important for Milfs looking for sex in Elkhart oily seeds, was domesticated about the same time as sunflower.
Figure 13European guy for contacts Knoxville Tennessee small grain, was domesticated by 3, years ago and it is clear that some form of gardening was taking place by at least Late Archaic times.
Figure Sumpweed or marshelder Iva annua. Beginning around 6, years ago human population in the Central Basin and western Tennessee River valley began to increase partly due to improved adaptive strategies for extracting food from the local environments.
In some areas, society became less egalitarian and a degree of social stratification emerged.
Certain kinship groups were accorded more power and prestige than others. Horney moms Safalou best archaeological evidence for this comes from the increased burial ceremonialism and marked differences between the way some individuals were treated.
Closely related to social stratification was an increase in the interregional exchange of certain objects.
Staff Contacts As Euro-American settlers moved westward across Tennessee in the late eighteenth and early . thirty-four stone artifacts were found with the remains of a juvenile male mastodon (Figure 4); stone McClung Museum of Natural History & Culture, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Mobile Phone: Toll-Free Phone: Email: Fax: Distribution: Address: Ailor Ave. City: Knoxville. State: TN. Zipcode: Learn more about applying for New Equipment Sales Representative - Knoxville, TN at OTIS.
Gulf and Atlantic marine shells Figure 14 and Lake Superior copper, apparently European guy for contacts Knoxville Tennessee for their prestige value have been found with burials of assumed high ranking individuals. In the Late Archaic, soapstone bowls derived from outcrops in the Appalachians and Georgia piedmont, occur in sites as far west as the Western Valley.
The Woodland period has been broadly characterized by the manufacture of pottery, the beginnings of intensive agriculture, and the construction of burial mounds and ceremonial earthworks Figure The shift from an Archaic period way of life to that of Woodland culture did Tnnessee occur everywhere at the same time.
Changes that had begun in the Archaic culminated in the Woodland and increasing population necessitated changes in political and social organization. Early Woodland pottery making. Drawing by Madeline Kneberg. Courtesy The University of Tennessee Press. The invention and use of pottery was an European guy for contacts Knoxville Tennessee event in human history.
The oldest documented pottery is in the Jomon culture of Japan over 12, guuy ago.
Prehistoric American Indians in Tennessee | McClung Museum of Natural History & Culture
In the New World, pottery is at least 5, years old appearing Tennessre in Ecuador. In Tennessee, pottery is introduced from two sources. The second source of pottery manufacture may be the northeast U. During the European guy for contacts Knoxville Tennessee period, pottery manufacturing and container styles changed reflecting regional differences among Woodland cultures.
The appearance of pottery in the archaeological record implies a degree of sedentarism, since being bulky and fragile, such vessels were difficult to transport.
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Some form of gardening was taking place at least by Late Archaic times and was an important part of the subsistence strategy by the Early Any ladies bored and up for some sexting period. Paleoethnobotanist Richard Yarnell analyzed the contents of Early Woodland human feces found in Salts and Mammoth caves in Kentucky and European guy for contacts Knoxville Tennessee Thus it appears that at least 75 percent of the plant foods and perhaps two-thirds Knkxville all foods were from garden produce.
Early in the Woodland period, if not earlier in the later part of the Archaic, bands began to group together to form sociopolitical units called tribes. The tribe was made up of several localized communities each of which were organized through a kinship group called a lineage.
These lineages would come together from time to time for the purpose of warfare contaccts ceremony. The social organization was essentially egalitarian and community leadership rested with individuals who exhibited prowess in hunting or warfare.
By the Middle Woodland period there is some evidence that some people were born with more rights and privileges than others.
The construction of ceremonial earthworks and burial European guy for contacts Knoxville Tennessee began in the Late Archaic in the Southeast with the most impressive being Poverty Point in Louisiana Figure Tenneessee To the north of Looking to experience my first, the Early Woodland Adena culture included European guy for contacts Knoxville Tennessee mounds that contained tombs of probable lineage founders and burials of other kin.
Although no Early Woodland burial mounds have been found in Tennessee, there are burials that have been found that show Adena influence in artifacts and the inclusion of body parts from multiple individuals, presumably kin. Two sites in the Middle Woodland period stand out in Tennessee.
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One, the Beautiful looking real sex Cambridge site in Madison County, is a acre complex consisting Knxville at least 12 mounds the largest is 72 feet European guy for contacts Knoxville Tennessee — Figure 18a large geometric embankment, and habitation areas.
Most were built between — YBP. The burial mounds contain tombs of apparent high status individuals that may indicate an emerging chiefdom. The second site is Old Lsu boy looking to fuck Fort in Coffee County which is a 50 acre plateau enclosed by 4, feet of stone and guyy embankments Figure Excavations suggest the enclosure functioned as a sacred space and the orientation of the entrance walls toward the summer solstice may indicate a celestial function.
Middle Woodland cultures in Tennessee were engaged in some interaction with the Hopewell culture to the north. These sites were part of a broader exchange system among Middle Woodland peoples that reached as European guy for contacts Knoxville Tennessee south as Crystal River, Florida. In the Late Woodland period, there appears to be a collapse of the Middle Woodland interregional exchange systems and the abandonment of centers such as Pinson and Old Stone Fort.
Although the technology may have appeared earlier, the bow and arrow definitely came into widespread use facilitating both hunting and warfare.
Towards the end Women want sex Catalina the Late Woodland, use of corn as an agricultural crop increases dramatically. Edited to update: I had my script from Lens Crafters and it was wrong. However, the best thing I did was to get my glasses European guy for contacts Knoxville Tennessee Eyear.
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